Sunday, December 22, 2019

Annotated Bibliography On Dna Fingerprinting - 1019 Words

DNA fingerprinting is a scientific technology involving the extraction, replication and arrangement of strands of an organism’s DNA. This results in the formation of a genetically distinctive fingerprint that is unique to the organism which the DNA sample was originally extracted from. Because of the specificity of a DNA fingerprint, the application of this technology can have a substantial influence on many aspects of society. Accessibility to a DNA database allows for higher efficiency in forensic investigations, personal identification, maternal and paternal testing. The availability of a national database to police officers and forensic scientists would equate to increased productivity in investigations and prosecution of suspects in a†¦show more content†¦Biological Background Due to the DNA’s specificity, samples can be utilised for identification. DNA is a nucleic acid composed of deoxyribose sugar bound to a phosphate group and one of four nitrogenous bases (adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine). Each section of these three components are referred to as nucleotides, which are joined to the phosphate or sugar of another nucleotide by strong covalent bonds to form a backbone. The nitrogenous bases are joined to complimentary bases of another nucleotide (adenine with thymine, guanine with cytosine) to create a double stranded molecule (Figure 2). To complete the double helical structure, the molecule coils to compact it’s contents. DNA molecules can contain up to two million base pairs, with a human genome containing approximately 3 million base pairs. The random assortment of nitrogenous bases as well as the numerous mutations within certain DNA sequences, results in genetically diverese DNA molecules and genomes between individials. The process of DNA fingerprinting in humans involves the replication and arrangement of extracted DNA, to create a pattern/fingerprint that is viable for comparison. This process involves the application of DNA extraction, digestion by restriction enzymes, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and gel electrophoresis. This results in a DNA profile with bands of varying widths that can be used for the comparison of genetic information. DNA extraction occurs in three stages. Firstly, a

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